Diabetes Mellitus: An overview

Diabetes mellitus is a condition that occurs when pancreas stop producing insulin (a hormone required for utilization of glucose in the body) in sufficient amount to allow body to store glucose and blood sugar level increase to the normal amount.

There are two types of diabetes: Type 1(insulin dependent) is an autoimmune disease that destroys the body’s ability to produce insulin. Type 2 (non-insulin dependent) the body is unable to produce enough insulin to meets its need or cannot effectively make use of it.

Risk Factors

Risk factors for diabetes included:

  • Family history
  • Obesity
  • SMOKING
  • Age
  • Hypertension
  • Physical or emotional stress
  • Use of medication, including steroid
  • High level of cholesterol
  • Injury to pancreas
  • No physical activity

Symptoms

Symptoms pf diabetes included:

  • Increased thirst
  • Dry mouth
  • Frequent urination
  • Increase Hunger
  • Fatigue
  • Blurred vision
  • Slow healing
  • Keton body present in urine
  • Irritability
  • Weight loss

Complication of diabetes:

Long term diabetes gradually develop many complications. These complications are:

1. Cardiovascular disease

Diabetes is associated with risk of various cardiovascular disease, including Heart attack, Atherosclerosis, Angina Pectoris and coronary artery disease.

2. Kidney damage

Diabetes is leading cause of kidney failure. It badly damage kidney filtering system as a re

3. Eye damage

Diabetes damage small blood vessels in retina and caused blurred vision or blindness. It also caused serious condition called cataracts and glaucoma.

4. Foot disease

Foots diseases are more common in people with diabetes. Cuts or blister which slowly due to diabetes can develop serious infections of foot diseases.

5. Nerve Damage

Excess sugar level damage the blood vessels that cause tingling, numbness, burning or pain in toes and spread upward.

How to control?

Diabetes can be can be prevented by

  • Eat healthy foods: Eat foods that are lower in fat and cholesterol. Consume fiber rich fruits and vegetables.
  • Physical activity: Daily exercise and walk may help to control Type 2 diabetes. Daily 30 minutes of moderate physical activity is must.
  • Lose weight: Weight loss is an important factor in lowering blood sugar level and improving the efficiency of cellular use of insulin. 

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