1. The Autism Syndrome

Autism is a broad, complex neurological developmental disorder, the term autistic disorder (ASD) is used to refer people with developmental disorders that are closely related to a broad range of definitions. Diagnosis of ASD is based on behaviour, and the only proven treatment is intensive behavioural therapy.

  1. Certain Social-Physical Characteristics of ASD

Autism is characterized by the severity of problems in several key areas of development including social interaction and communication as well as behaviour and psychology. In order to be diagnosed with Autism, behavioural symptoms in each of the above groups must be in year 3 (1,2). The symptoms and symptoms common in ASD may include: 

The expression of unusual speech patterns, such as the use of robot sounds, avoiding attention to others and not talking to parents or correcting them as infants. The redemption is like anonymity or an expression of ASD’s ability to speak. At times, ASD can be your difficulty in maintaining a conversation, repeating a sentence. Clearly the difficulty of understanding emotions and expressing themselves (3,4).

3. Autism and its association with the mental retardation

There is a known association between Autism and mental retardation. Almost three-quarters of the autistic people experienced various degrees of mental retardation. Although the majority of Autism is idiopathic, about 10-25% is associated with cognitive illness, which is usually a symptom of the mental syndrome. Affected individuals are more common in some diseases (for example, bronchitis and X syndrome) than in others such as cerebral play and Down’s syndrome (5,6,7).

  1. Genetic Basis of ASD

Researchers have identified many related genes possibly pave the ground for the development of the ASD. In some cases, these genes only appear by mutation and interact; on the other hand, some people also do inherit such gene (3,4,7). Inheritance is critically important and is considered to be the result of multiple-interaction of the genes (8,9), with the autism spectrum providing a greater risk of impairment of communication and social play. Occasionally, single-gene disorders, including the chromosomal disorders are involved in the pathogenesis. Therefore, the common variants contain inversion duplications of chromosome 15, leading to the assumption that genes in chromosome 15 may increase one’s susceptibility to Autism (2,9).

  1. Examining the Possible Major stimuli behind ASD 

5.1. The Twin Studies

In some studies, it was revealed that Autism was often associated with being twins. For example, if one of the twins is autistic, the other may have an average of 36 to 95% of the probability of being autistic according to NINDS.

5.2. Maternal Antibodies uses

Autoimmune diseases (in which immune cells erroneously identify cells in the body as foreign and attack them) mediated by circulating antibodies currently affect as much as nine per cent of the world’s population, and the notion that autoimmunity may be associated with neurological and psychiatric disorders goes back to the 1930s.

5.3. Environmental Toxicants

In addition to viral and bacterial pathogens and medications prescribed for medical reasons, scientists have found several toxic substances in the environment could be possibly implicating the autism syndrome. (10).

5.4. Treatment options

There is no perfect cure for Autism; however, the following practices are used to improve symptoms: the play therapy, music therapy, educational, health, speech and behavioural therapy, etc. When caring for children with ASD, psychiatric treatment is often considered to complement stress training and behaviour. However, many children with ASD are treated by doctors and receive additional medications, complementary-alternative medicines, or supplements. Although many studies treating children with ASD have been considering the human matrix factor such as prognosis, clinical trials, design studies, treatment strategies, and change measurements etc. (9,10,11).

  1. Conclusions

Since the characteristics, attributes and certain tendencies of autism syndrome summarized in this article appear in varying degrees among affected people. However, several of them may learn to overcome their challenges by building on their mental and psychological strengths. The certain and accurate diagnosis of Autism syndrome is no longer used, still many previously diagnosed people still identify significantly and positively with being an “Aspie”. the syndrome needs early detection and care for those suffering from the syndrome, for going unnoticed with Autism’s syndrome, can render affected people’s life difficult and also for their love ones to understand them, and carry them along with their autistic nature. 

References

  1. Autism: Caring for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Resource Toolkit for Clinicians,”
  2. Goodman R, Ford T, Simmons H, Gatward R, Meltzer H. Using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to screen for child psychiatric disorders in a community sample. Br J Psychiatry. 2000;177:534-539. 
  3. Morgan O, Baker A. Measuring deprivation in England and Wales using 2001 Carstairs Q 12 scores. Health Stat Q. 2006;31:28-33. 
  4. Howlin P, Savage S, Moss P, Tempier A, Rutter M. Cognitive and language skills in adults with Autism: a 40-year follow-up. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2014;55:49-58. 
  5. Levy A, Perry A. Outcomes in adolescents and adults with autism: a review of the literature. Res Autism Spectr Disord. 2011;5:1271-1282. 
  6. Mawhood L, Howlin P, Rutter M. Autism and developmental receptive language disorder—a comparative follow-up in early adult life. I: Cognitive and language outcomes. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2000;41:547-559. 
  7. Gillespie-Lynch K, Sepeta L, Wang Y, et al. Early childhood predictors of the social competence of adults with Autism. J Autism Dev Disord. 2012;42:161-174. 
  8. Zander.2005. 2005/ An introduction to Autism Original title: Introduktion om autism. Handikapp & Habilitering, Box 17519, 118 91 Stockholm.
  9. Psychiatric Genetics: December 2005 – Volume 15 – Issue 4 – p 243-254.
  10. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics: January 2011 – Volume 32 – Issue 1 – p 56-68.
  11. Johnny L.Matson, Santino V.LoVullo, First published on January 1, 2008. 
  12. David G.Amaral,PH.D.Cerebrum. 2017 Jan-Feb; 2017: cer-01-17. Review of Behavioral Treatments for Self-Injurious Behaviors of Persons With Autism Spectrum Disorders: Published online 2017 Jan 1.

Submitted by “Unsa Andleeb Ayub”