Mental gland – Wikipedia



A psychological gland is part of the frame discovered in lots of species of amphibians and reptiles. Psychological glands produce chemical substances that conspecific animals use to keep in touch.[1][2]


The psychological glands seem in pairs, one on every aspect of the pinnacle. They’re positioned in the back of the top of the mandible.[1][3]

Serve as[edit]

Psychological glands produce hormones which are secreted in the course of the pores and skin. The secretions from psychological glands were implicated in mate variety, species identity, and different purposes.[1][3][4]

Scientists consider that the pinnacle bobbing habits seen in turtles encountering any other member of their very own species would possibly serve to disperse the chemical substances from the psychological glands in the course of the air.[1] Sure courtship behaviors seen in salamanders, akin to snapping, best seem in salamanders that experience psychological glands, so scientists consider they’re additionally intended to unfold the chemical substances in the course of the air.[2]

Origins and evolution[edit]

No longer all reptiles and amphibians have psychological glands. It’s not peculiar for some species in the similar circle of relatives to have psychological glands whilst others don’t.[1][2]

In 2021, one workforce of scientists discovered that the majority turtles that experience psychological glands are aquatic. They concluded that psychological glands advanced as soon as in turtles, within the ancestor of the circle of relatives Testudinoidea, and that every one turtles that experience psychological glands broaden them from the similar starting place tissue. They inferred that turtles that would not have psychological glands misplaced them.[1]


  1. ^ a b c d e f Alejandro Ibáñez; Uwe Fritz; Markus Auer; Albert Martínez-Silvestre; Peter Praschag; Emilia Załugowicz; Dagmara Podkowa; Maciej Pabijan (Would possibly 17, 2021). “Evolutionary historical past of psychological glands in turtles finds a unmarried starting place in an aquatic ancestor and recurrent losses impartial of macrohabitat”. Medical Reviews (Complete textual content). 11 (10396). Retrieved July 5, 2022.
  2. ^ a b c David M. Sever; Dustin S. Siegel; Michael S. Taylor; Christopher Okay. Beachy1 (March 17, 2016). “Phylogeny of Psychological Glands, Revisited”. Copeia (Complete textual content). 104 (1): 83–93. doi:10.1643/CH-14-210. Retrieved July 5, 2022.{{cite magazine}}: CS1 maint: date and 12 months (hyperlink)
  3. ^ a b David M. Sever (January 18, 2016). “Ultrastructure of the psychological gland of the Purple-Sponsored Salamander, Plethodon cinereus (Amphibia: Plethodontidae)” (Summary). doi:10.1111/azo.12158. Retrieved July 5, 2022.
  4. ^ Ariana E. Rupp; David M. Sever (February 14, 2017). “Histology of psychological and caudal courtship glands in 3 genera of plethodontid salamanders (Amphibia: Plethodontidae)” (PDF). Acta Zoologica (Complete textual content). Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. 98 (2): 154–162. doi:10.1111/azo.12188. Retrieved July 5, 2022.


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